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(Linley Sambourne House, London/Bridgeman Art Library) Left: a type of paraffin lamp with a Duplex burner which was common in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
The simple pulley arrangement enabled the lamp to be pulled down low over a table to provide a bright pool of light, or raised to illuminate the whole room.
The amount of light which can be produced by a wick is limited by the surface area of the wick and the amount of fuel and air able to reach it. The gas mantle, on the other hand, provides a much larger three-dimensional surface, and is far more effective as a result.
Invented by Carl Aur von Wesbach in 1885, the incandescent mantle was the last major breakthrough in oil and gas lighting of the period, before both succumbed to electric lighting.
In the photographs taken in the early 20th century, many of the candle fittings seen were empty.
This lamp had a broad flat wick held between two metal cylinders to form a circular wick, with air drawn through it and around it.
By the end of the period gas lighting was common in urban homes and electricity was being introduced in many.